SOLAR WIND INTERACTIONS

Advances in Space Research, 6(1)
Edited by: C.T. Russell
394pp, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1986

Table of Contents

PREFACE

At the 26th Plenary Meeting of COSPAR held in Toulouse, France, a symposium on Solar Wind Interactions comprising 10 half-day sessions was convened by Commission D. The solar wind interactions that were discussed included those associated with planetary and cometary bow shocks, reconnection, mass-loading, planetary and cometary magnetoitails , and the interaction of the distant solar wind with the heliopause. The symposium consisted of both invited and contributed presentations. Some topical areas were treated almost, exclusively with invited talks such as in the session on magnetotails. In other areas where there are many active research groups, such as in upstream particles and waves, the papers were predominantly contributed.

The scientific program was organized with the advice of A. Galeev, W. Kurth, J. Luhmann, M. Niedner and G. Paschmann. The program was very successful despite having to compete at times with the Solar Terrestrial Symposium, a Comet Symposium and several other symposia of interest to the same community. We hope that this volume is equally as successful as the symposium and that it is of great use to you the reader. Herein we have assembled the review papers and contributed papers of those authors who submitted manuscripts for the proceedings. All were reviewed and some did not pass muster. The overall quality of the submittals was high, a pleasant surprise for the editor. In addition to the high overall quality of the papers, an important property of this volume is that it contains an international cross section of the work being done in the field. No one country is responsible for more than 30% of the work reported herein. The lead authors of the papers work in a dozen different countries.

Another aspect of this volume which pleased the editor is the large number nf new results from the latest missions. In this volume is the first large compilation of Intershock results in the English literature, together with new results on shocks and upstream waves from the AMPTE mission as well as those old standby's ISEEI and 2. New AMPTE results on steady reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and on Flux Transfer Events appear in the chapter on reconnection. The latest cometary results from Vega, Giotto and ICE also appear in Chapters 3 and 4. Finally old stalwarts such as ISEE, pioneer Venus, and Voyager continue to provide data on solar wind interactions and to discover interesting results.

The chapter on bow shock and upstream waves provide examples of new results from these older spacecraft. M. Mellott has used the extensive field of plasma wave data at the Earth's bow shock by ISEE to examine the role of plasma turbulence in the physics of the bow shock. C. d'Uston examines diffusion in the upstream region as deduced from ISEE1 observations. E. W. Greenstadt shows that the Venus foreshock as seen by Pioneer Venus is similar to the terrestrial foreshock observed by ISEE, and your editor compares upstream waves observed by ISEE with waves observed simultaneously by UKS/AMPTE elsewhere in the foreshock.

Chapter 1 also has a nice mix nf theory with observation. C. F. Kennel discusses quasiparallel fast shocks. A. A. Galeev discusses electron and ion heating. K. Quest discusses perhaps the most recent hot topic in collision less shock research, very high Mach number shocks, and D. Burgess discusses the formation of the upstream beams in the foreshock.

The chapter on reconnection is also a balanced mix of theory and observation with some laboratory measurements mixed in, albeit somewhat shorter than Chapter 1. This field is still a very active area and some of that activity apparently got in the way of those who had originally planned to submit manuscripts. Many of the new observational results in this area come from AMPTE, in part because of the improved plasma instrumentation on this spacecraft. Again those older spacecraft ISEE1 and 2 are still making new discoveries such as the possible FTE's in the tail reported by R. C. Elphic and C. Cattell. Reconnection is one area in space plasma physics in which measurements can be performed in the laboratory, albeit with some scaling considerations. Lessons from these experiments are detailed in the paper by R. L. Stenzel and co-workers. This chapter also showcases for the first time some of the results of the theoretical group in Graz, Austria in the papers by M. Heyn and H. Biernat and co-workers and some of the ongoing work on FTE's by the Imperial College London group in the paper by C. Farrugia and co-workers.

The third chapter on mass-loading and comets represents an attempt to bring together the results of observational and theoretical studies of the process of adding new ions initially at rest to a flowing plasma. The name mass-loading implies that the addition of mass is significant so that the flow is altered. Much of the theoretical treatment of this problem today involves numerical simulation as discussed for Venus by Tamara Breus. Observational data are available from Venus, the AMPTE Barium and Lithium releases from interstellar neutrals ionized in the solar wind and now at comets. Depending on the rate of mass-loading, a bow shock may or may not form. A bow shock is seen at Venus but mass-loading is not the only reason for the deflection of the solar wind at Venus. At Halley, as at Giacobini-Zinner, a bow wave was clearly seen, but the debate as to whether this bow wave is in fact a shock continues. Max Wallis, in his customary style, lends notes of caution for those studying the mass pickup.

Chapter 4 discusses magnetotails, both intrinsic magnetotails and those induced by the solar wind interaction with unmagnetized planets. P. Daly and A. Nishida discuss respectively the structure of the distant terrestrial magnetotail and its dynamics. R. Lepping discusses the Jovian magnetotail including some new insights into its structure and W. Macek and S. Grzedzielski compare the properties of the various intrinsic planetary magnetotails. The latest results on the induced tail of Venus are+ discussed by your editor followed by a treatment of the Martian tail by O. Vaisberg and V. Smirnov. There are many similarities of the Martian tail with the Venus tail, yet the consensus is that the Martian tail is intrinsic. The chapter closes with a treatment of the plasma tail of comets, both from a ground-based observers viewpoint in the paper by Niedner and from spacecraft observers in the papers by F. Scarf and by B. Wilken and co-workers.

The final chapter discusses the distant solar wind, the heliopause and the local interstellar medium. P. Frisch discusses local fluff around the solar system, the very local interstellar medium. V. Pizzo follows with a discussion of the properties of the distant solar wind that interacts with the local interstellar medium. E. Chassefiere and J. Bertaux and H. Nass and H. Fahr discuss some aspects of this interaction with regard to the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. W. Kurth and co-workers report further on the properties of the VLF emissions Voyager has observed in the distant solar wind and that may be coming from the heliopause. H. Fahr and co-workers in turn discuss factors that determine the location and shape of this boundary. Despite all the work on this problem, however, the location of the heliopause is still quite uncertain.

In closing I would like to thank the referees who worked so hard at refereeing the papers at this meeting and whose efforts thus permitted the timely production of this volume: D. Burgess, R. C. Elphic, S. P. Gary, M. A. Lee, E. Mobius, A. Nishida, K. Quest, D. Sibeck and G. L. Siscoe. The sessions themselves were ably chaired by: P. Daly, S. Fischer, A. Galeev, W. Kurth, J. Luhmann, M. Niedner, W. Riedler, S.Schwartz, B. Sonnerup and M. Wallis. Finally, I would like to thank Z.Niemirowicz and his COSPAR staff especially Debbie Castell who worked long hours assembling abstracts, notifying authors, and arranging for the proper facilities so that the symposium would proceed smoothly. Last but not least were the efforts of my own staff at UCLA in particular P. Rowe and L. Reed who assisted greatly both prior to the conference and with preparing the final typescript and M. Ishiwata who helped me repair any flaws in the submitted manuscripts and their artwork. All this assistance made my job much easier

C. T. Russell
Institute of Geophysics
University of California, Los Angeles
September 1986

CONTENTS

Page 1: Preface

Chapter I -- SHOCKS AND UPSTREAM WAVES

Page 5: Quasi-Parallel Shocks; C. F. Kennel

Page 17: Electron and Ion Heating at Supercritical Shocks; A. A. Galeev

Page 25: Plasma Wave Signatures of Collisionless Shocks and the Role of Plasma Wave Turbulence in Shock Formation; M. M. Mellott

Page 33: Very High Mach Number Shocks: Theory; K. B. Quest

Page 41: lon Distribution Function Dynamics Near the Strong Shock Front (Project INTERSHOCK); O. Vaisberg, G. Zastenker, V. Smirnov, Z. Nemecek, J. Safrankova, L. Avanov and E. Kolesnikova

Page 45: Project INTERSHOCK: Complex Analysis of the Bow Shock Crossing on 7 May 1985; A. A. Galeev, S. Fischer, S. 1. Klimov, K. Kudela, V. N. Lutsenko, Z. Nemecek, M. N. Nozdrachev, J. Safrankova, P. Triska, O. Vaisberg and G. Zastenker

Page 49: Acceleration of Electrons at the Quasi-Perpendicular Bow Shock According to INTERSHOCK Data; M. Vandas, S. Fischer, V. N. Lutsenko, K. Kudela, M. Slivka, Z. Nemecek and J. Safrankova

Page 53: Instabilities of Ion Flow Observed Downstream of the Earth's Bow Shock; Z. Nemecek, J. Safrankova, 1. Kozak, C. Zastenker and V. Smirnov

Page 57: Nonlinear Hot Plasma Motions Across a Strong Magnetic Field; M. E. Gedalin, V. V. Krasnoselskikh and J. G. Lominadze

Page 63: lon Beams at Oblique Shocks; D. Burgess

Page 67: Energetic Proton Spectra Upstream of the Bow Shock from INTERSHOCK Project; V. N. Lutsenko, Yu. I. Logachev, K. Kudela, M. Slivka, S. Fischer, M. Vandas, Z. Nemecek and J. Safrankova

Page 71: Some Aspects of the Diffusion in the Upstream Region of the Earth Deduced from ISEE 1 Observations; C. d'Uston, K. Meziane and A. Saint-Marc

Page 77: Comparative ULF Foreshocks of Earth and Venus Observed by ISEE 1 and PVO; E. W. Greenstadt

Page 85: Simultaneous Observation of Upstream Waves with ISEE and AMPTE; C. T. Russell, J. G. Luhmann, R. C. Elphic and D. J. Southwood

Page 89: AMPTE-UKS Observations of Current Sheets in the Solar Wind; L. J. C. Woolliscroft, S. J. Schwartz, C. C. Brown, C. P. Chaloner, P. J. Christiansen, A. Coates, A. G. Darbyshire, M. P. Gough, D. S. Hall, A. D. Johnstone, W. A. C. Mier-Jedrzejowicz, A. J. Norris, R. P. Rijnbeek and D. J. Southwood

Page 93: Electron Plasma Waves in the Solar Wind: AMPTE/IRM and UKS Observations; R. A. Treumann, O. H. Bauer, J. LaBelle, G. Haerendel, P. J. Christiansen, A. G. Darbyshire, A. J. Norris, L. J. C. Woolliscroft, R. R. Anderson, D. A. Gurnett, R. W. Holzworth, H. C. Koons and J. Roeder

Page 97: Short Wavelength Ion Cyclotron Waves Upstream of the Earth's Bow Shock; M. Roy and G. S. Lakhina

Chapter 2 -- RECONNECTION

Page 103: AMPTE Observations of Steady-State Reconnection at the Dayside Magnetopause; M. F. Smith

Page 115: Spontaneous Decay of a Tangential Discontinuity; M. F. Heyn, H. K. Biernat and V. S. Semenov

Page 119: Reconnection Active Layers; H. K. Biernat, M. F. Heyn and V. S. Semenov

Page 123: Detection of FTEs by the AMPTE-UKS Magnetometer; M. A. Saunders, D. J. Southwood, R. P. Rijnbeek, W. A. C. Mier-Jedrzejowicz and M. W. Dunlop

Page 129: Flow in the Vicinity of Isolated Flux Tubes: Application to FTEs in the Incompressible Limit; C. J. Farrugia, A. N. Wright, D. J. Southwood, S. W. H. Cowley and R. C. Elphic

PAge 135: Lessons From Laboratory Experiments on Reconnection; R. L. Stenzel, W. Gekelman and J. M. Urrutia

Page 149: ISEE1 and 2 Observations of Magnetotail Flux Ropes: FTEs in the Plasma Sheet?; R. C. Elphic and C. A. Cattell

Page 153: Comparative Study of Plasma Wave Activity in the Plasma Sheet Boundary and Near Earth Plasma Sheet; S. I. Klimov, S. A. Romanov, M. N. Nozdrachev, S. P. Savin, A.Yu. Sokolov, L. M. Zeleny, J. Blencki, K. Kossacki, P. Oberc, B. Popielawska, J. Buchner and B. Nikutowsky

Page 159: Particle Dynamics of the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer; J. Dandouras, A. Saint-Marc, H. Reme, J. A. Sauvaud and G. K. Parks

Chapter 3 -- MASS-LOADING AND COMETS

Page 167: Mass-Loading at Venus: Theoretical Expectations; T. K. Breus

Page 179: Interplanetary Magnetic Field Control of the Venus Megnetosheath Field and Bow Shock Location; J. L. Phillips, J. G. Luhmann, C. T. Russell and C. J. Alexander

Page 185: Magnetic Stresses During the Solar Wind Barium Release of 27 December 1984; M. W. Dunlop, D. J. Southwood, R. P. Rijnbeek, W. A. C. Mier-Jedrzejowicz and M. A. Saunders

Page 191: Interplanetary Flux Enhancements: Comparison with Cometary Models and Observations; C. T. Russell, J. L. Phillips, J. G. Luhmann and J. A. Fedder

Page 195: Limitations of Mass-Loading Models; M. K. Wallis

Page 199: Pick-up of Interstellar Neutrals by the Solar Wind; E. Mobius

Page 209: Observations of the Interactions of Heavy Ions from Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner with the Solar Wind; T. R. Sanderson, K.-P. Wenzel, P. W. Daly, S. W. H. Cowley, R. J. Hynds, E. J. Smith, S. J. Bame and R. D. Zwickl

Page 213: Three Dimensional Energetic Ion Bulk Flows in the Mass-Loaded Region of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner; l. G. Richardson, S. W. H. Cowley, R. J. Hynds, T. R. Sanderson, K.-P. Wenzel and P. W. Daly

Page 217: Cometary Boundaries: VEGA Observations at Halley; K. Schwingenschuh, W. Riedler, G. Schelch, Ye. G. Yeroshenko, V. A. Styashkin, J. G. Luhmann, C. T. Russell and J. A. Fedder

Page 229: GIOTTO Observations of the Bow Shock at Comet Halley; V. Formisano, E. Amata, B. Wilken, K. Jockers, A. D. Johnstone, A. Coates, J. Heath, M. Thomsen, J. D. Winningham, H. Borg and D. A. Bryant

Page 235: Energetic lon Observations of a Cometary Bow Shock-Like Structure; C. Tranquille, I. G. Richardson, S. W. H. Cowley, T. R. Sanderson, K.-P. Wenzel and R. J. Hynds

Page 239: Bow Shock Decay in Comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley; M. K. Wallis

Chapter 4 -- MAGNETOTAILS

Page 245:Structure of the Distant Terrestrial Magnetotail; P. W. Daly

Page 259: Structural Change of Magnetotail Following Northward Turning of IMF; A . Nishida

Page 269: The Jovian Magnetotail; R. P. Lepping

Page 283: Planetary Magnetotails: Model Based on ISEE3 and Voyager2 Evidence; W. Macek and S. Grzedzielski

Page 291: The Venus Magnetotail; C. T. Russell

Page 301: The Martian Magnetotail; O. Vaisberg and V. Smirnov

Page 315: Dynamics of Cometary Plasma Tails; M. B. Niedner, Jr

Page 329: Characteristics of the Tail of Comet Giacobini-Zinner; F. L. Scarf

Page 337: Comet Plasma Tail Formation--GIOTTO Observations; B. Wilken, K. Jockers, A. D. Johnstone, A. Coates, J. Heath, V. Formisano, E. Amata, J. D. Winningham, M. Thomsen, D. A. Bryant and H. Borg

Chapter 5 -- THE DISTANT SOLAR WIND HELIOPAUSE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

Page 345: The Physical Properties of the "Local Fluff'; P. C. Frisch

Page 353: The Nature of the Distant Solar Wind; V. J. Pizzo

Page 369: L'Interaction Entre le Flot d'Helium Neutre d'Origine Interstellaire et l'Heliosphere; E. Chassefiere and J. L. Bertaux

Page 375: Revised Interstellar Gas Models Including a Collisional Drag Force; H.U. Nass, H.J. Fahr

Page 379: Recent Observations of the Very Low Frequency Interplanetary Radio Emission; W.S. Kurth, D.A. Gurnett and F.L. Scarf

Page 385: Kilometric Type II Radiation from Interplanetary Shocks: Interpretation of Voyager Results; Y. Leblanc, D.F. Smart and M.A. Shea

Page 389: The Heliopause as a Pressure Equilibrium Surface Separating Two Counterflowing Magnetized Plasmas; H.J. Fahr, R. Ratkiewicz-Landowska and Grzedzielski

Page 393: Author Index


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