SOLAR WIND THREE

The proceedings of a conference sponsored jointly by the Universities of California and Arizona and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California

Edited by C.T. Russell

Published by

Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics
University of California, Los Angeles 90024

July 1974

Table of Contents

Preface

This conference is the third in a series of conferences devoted solely to the solar wind. The first conference was held at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena in 1964. The second was held in March 1971 at the Asilomar Conference Grounds, Pacific Grove, California the same location as the present conference. The decision to hold the Third Solar Wind Conference only three years after the Second Solar Wind Conference was in response to a poll conducted at the time of the distribution of the proceedings of the second conference. Since most had been satisfied with the locale and facilities of the second conference, it was decided to use the Asilomar conference grounds once again. The date for the second conference, the last week of March, also seemed appropriate for the third conference for it coincided with the University of California quarter break and nestled between the Fifth Lunar Science meeting and the National American Geophysical Union meeting thus enabling overseas visitors to attend two or more meetings on one trip.

The organizing committee strongly felt that a good program would evolve only if the advisory committee could meet together and iterate the selection cf topics and speakers. Since there is no single regular meeting or organization in which all solar wind disciplines are represented, and since travel funds are presently quite restricted, a local advisory committee was selected. The success of this approach and the absence of parochialism in the choice of topics and speakers is a matter for the individual readers of this volume to decide.

The first priority of the Third Solar Wind Conference was to address those questions not covered at the previous conference. Thus, we included sessions on coronal structure and dynamics, spatial gradients, the interaction with comets, planets and the moon, stellar winds, the history and evolution of the solar wind, and cosmic rays as a probe of the solar wind. Our second priority was to cover new work since the previous conference. Thus, we included sessions on solar abundances, and macroscopic and microscopic properties.

Contributed papers, per se, were not solicited. The philosophy of the program selection was to first invite a series of major review papers, roughly two or three per session. Then, the program was reevaluated, and suggestions from colleagues were incorporated wherever possible, often by inviting short topical review papers. Finally, all participants were urged to bring slides and enter the discussions as appropriate. Many of these illustrated comments, arising during the discussion periods have evolved into papers and appear in this volume.

As for this volume itself, it is an experiment. One of the major criticisms of the second solar wind conference was that the Proceedings did not appear until late in 1972. There was no special reason for this delay. It is just the normal delay involved in editing and typesetting a large book. To overcome this problem and to keep the price of the book at a minimum, we have decided to keep editing to a bare minimum and use photo-offset methods to reproduce the author produced copy. Finally, we note that A.J. Dessler, editor of the Reviews of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, suggested that the longer reviews be submitted to that journal for publication, and a number of authors have taken his suggestion. Summaries of many of these articles, however, are contained herein. If there are sufficient papers submitted to RGSP, we plan to collect these papers together and issue a second volume of the proceedings.

Finally, we wish to thank those who aided us both during the conference: R. Clauer, S. Kranz, S. McCoy, S. Subbarao and H. Weiss and afterwards with the preparation of this volume: P. Rowe, B. Rezin and H. Wolfe. Without their able assistance, the conference and this proceedings would not have been possible.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page 1: CHAPTER I - THE PROBLEM OF SOLAR ABUNDANCES

Page 2: Nuclear Composition of Cosmic Rays; D. Hovestadt

Page 26: Coronal and Solar Wind Abundances; J. Hirshberg

Page 27: Measurement of Heavy Solar Wind Particles during the Apollo 17 Mission; E. Zinner, R.M. Walker J. Borg and M. Maurette

Page 33: Relation of Solar Wind Fluctuations to Differential Flow between Protons and Alphas; M. Neugebauer

Page 35 CHAPTER II - THE HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR WIND

Page 36: Evidence of a Primordial Solar Wind; C.P. Sonett

Page 58: The Solar Wind as Deduced from Lunar Samples; P. Eberhardt

Page 68: The Thermal Properties of the Ancient Solar Wind; J. Borg, A.L. Burlingame, M. Maurette and P.C. Wszolek

Page 71: CHAPTER III - THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR CORONA

Page 72: Traveling Solar Radio Bursts; R.G. Stone

Page 98: Coronal Structure and The Solar Wind; E.C. Roelof

Page 132: X-ray Observations of Cronal Holes and Their Relation to High Velocity Solar Wind Streams; A.S. Krieger, A.F. Timothy, G.S. Vaiana, A.J. Lazarus and J.D. Sullivan

Page 140: Interplanetary Disturbances: A C1assification; J.T. Gosling

Page 144: Coronal Transient Phenomena; S.T. Wu and S.M. Han

Page 147: Spectral Characteristics of Flares; S. Schoolman and A. Title

Page 150: CHAPTER IV - MACROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF THE SOLAR WIND

Page 151: Discontinuities in the Solar Wind; G.L. Siscoe

Page 169: A Model for the Propagation of Flare Associated Interplanetary Shock Waves; J.K. Chao

Page 175: Numerical Simulation of Interplanetary Shock Ensembles; R.S. Steinolfson, M. Dryer, and Y. Nakagawa

Page 179: Interpenetrating Solar Wind Streams; W.C. Feldman, J R. Asbridge, S.J. Bame, and M.D. Montgomery

Page 180: Instabilities Connected with Neutral Sheets in the Solar Wind; V. Formisano, P.C. Hedgecock. C.T. Russell and J.D. Means

Page 187: Suprathermal Particles; R.P. Lin

Page 195: Long term variations of the solar wind proton parameters; L. Diodato, G. Moreno and C. Signorini

Page 196: Effect of Magnetic Force on Solar Wind Expansion; T. Yeh

Page 201: CHAPTER V - COSMIC RAYS AS A PROBE OF THE SOLAR WIND

Page 202: Cosmic Ray Propagation in the Solar Wind; H. Volk

Page 203: Simulation of Pitch Angle Diffusion of Charged Particles in a Disordered Magnetic Field; T.B. Kaiser

Page 206: Two Views of Cosmic Ray Propagation in the Solar System; E. Barouch

Page 214: Progress Report on the Radial Gradient of Cosmic Ray Nuclei O.5 MeV per Nucleon to Relativistic Energies and Electrons 6 to 30 MeV; J.A. Simpson, T.F.. Conlon, J. J. O'Gallgher, R.B. McKibben. and A.J. Tuzzolino

Page 217: Heliocentric Cosmic Ray Gradient 1.04.1 AU; M.F. Thomsen

Page 224: An Effect of Cosmic Rays on the Distant Solar Wind; J.R. Jokipii and L.C. Lee

Page 230: CHAPTER VI - STELLAR WINDS

Page 231: Stellar Winds; P.H. Roberts

Page 243: Binary Stellar Winds; G.L. Siscoe and M.A. Heinemann

Page 256: CHAPTER Vll - SPATIAL GRADIENTS

Page 257: Radial Gradients in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field between 1.0 and 4.3 AU: Pioneer 10; E.J. Smith

Page 281: Radial Gradient of Solar Wind Velocity from 1 to 5 AU; H.R. Collard and J.H. Wolfe

Page 291: Mode Decay and Gradients in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field Fluctuation; Spectrum R.H. Cohen

Page 294: The Radial Gradient and the Role of Turbulence in the Solar System; D.S. Intriligator

Page 300: The Latitude Dependencies of the Solar Wind; R.L. Rosenberg and C.R. Winge

Page 311: Three Dimensional Modelling; S. Suess

Page 318: Theoretical Predictions of Latitude Dependencies in the Solar Wind; C.R. Winge

Page 321: Variation of the Solar Wind Flux with Heliographic Latitude Deduced from its Interaction with Interplanetary Hydrogen; J. Blamont

Page 329: Evidence of a Velocity Gradient in the Solar Wind; E.J. Smith and E.J. Rhodes, Jr

Page 332: CHAPTER Vlll - MICROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF THE SOLAR WIND

Page 333: Waves and Instabilities in the Solar Wind; J.V. Hollweg

Page 334: Interplanetary Heat Conduction Imp 7 Results; W.C. Feldman, M.D. Montgomery, J.R. Asbridge, S.J. Bame, and H.R. Lewis

Page 343: Simulation of Colliding Solar Wind Streams with Multifluid Codes; K. Papadopoulos, R.W. Clark and C.E. Wagner

Page 351: Interplanetary Scintillations; W.A. Coles, B.J. Rickett, and V.H. Rumsey

Page 368: The Power Associated with Density Fluctuations and Velocity Fluctuations in the Solar Wind; D.S. Intriligator

Page 373: The Enhancement of Solar Wind Fluctuations with Scale Size Near the Proton Gyroradius; M. Neugebauer

Page 375: The Fine Structure of Solar Wind Velocity; N.A. Lotova and I.V. Chashey

Page 382: Nonlinear Hydromagnetic Wave Evolution in the Solar Wind; R.H. Cohen and R.M. Kulsrud

Page 385: On the Theory of Large Amplitude Alfven Waves; M.L. Goldstein, A.J. Klimas, and F.D. Barish

Page 388: Instability of Alfven Waves in the Solar Wind; M. Dobrowolny

Page 390: The Relationship between Velocity Gradients and Magnetic Turbulence in the Solar Wind; H.B, Garrett

Page 395: CHAPTER IX - SOLAR WIND INTERACTIONS

Page 396: Interaction of a Comet with the Solar Wind; L. Biermann

Page 415: Preliminary Results on Comet Kohoutek Interactions with the Solar Wind; J.C. Brandt and S.P. Maran

Page 421: Solar Wind Interaction with Venus: Review; M.K. Wallis

Page 429: Solar Wind Venus Interaction Observed from Magnetic Field Experiment on Mariner 10; Y.C. Whang, N.F. Ness, K.W. Behannon, and R.P. Lepping

Page 433: Observations of Moon-Plasma Interactions by Explorer 35 and Apollo Surface and Orbital Experiments; G. Schubert and B.R. Lichtenstein

Page 440: Structure of the Terrestrial Bow Shock; E.W. Greenstadt

Page 455: Variation of the Ratio of Specific Heats Across a Detached Bow Shock; J.K. Chao and M.J. Wiskerchen

Page 460: The Terrestrial Magnetosphere and Comparison with Jupiter; F.C. Michel

Page 472: The Detection of Jovian High Energy Electrons in Interplanetary Space greater than about 1 AU from the Planet; J.A. Simpson, D.L. Chenette, and T.F. Conlon

Page 475: Jupiter's Bow Shock: Comparison with Theory; M, Dryey

Page 479: APPENDIX A SOLAR WIHD QUESTIONNAIRE

Page 484: APPENDIX B PARTICIPANTS


To C. T. Russell's page