IMS Source Book: Guide to the International Magnetospheric Study Data Analysis

Editors: C. T. Russell, David J. Southwood, 304pp, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 1982


Preface vii

I. IMS Satellites

T. T. von Rosenvinge, Data from ISEE3 for the IMS Period 1
Joseph H. King, Availability of IMP7 and IMP8 Data for the IMS Period 10
Keith W. Ogilvie, Data from ISEE1 for the IMS Period 21
Vittorio Formisano, The International Sun Earth Explorer Mission ISEE I and 2 27
R. Lundin, B. Hultqvist, N. Pissarenko and A. Zackarov, Particle Data from PROGNOZ-7 (The PROMICS-1 Experiment) 37
K. Knott, The Availability of GEOS Data for IMS Research 43
Theodore A. Fritz and Carlene Arthur Neeley, Geostationary Satellites ATS6 and SMS/GOES: Description, Position, and Data Availability During the IMS 53
J.F. Fennell, Description of P78-2 (SCATHA) Satellite and Experiments 65
D. H. Baker, P. R. Higbie, R. D. Belian, E. W. Hones, Jr., and R. W. Klebesadel, The Los Alamos Synchronous Orbit Data Set 82
C. A. Cattell, S3-3 Satellite Instrumentation and Data 91
H. W. Kroehl, Space Environment Monitoring by Low-Altitude Operational Satellites 99
N. W. Spencer, The AE Mission During the IMS 106
R. A. Langel, MAGSAT Data Availability 109
M. J. Teague, D. M. Sawyer, and J. L Vette, The Satellite Situation Center 112

II. Ground Based Observations

Risto Pellinen, IMS Ground Observations on Optical Aurora and Ionospheric Absorption Made in Northern Europe, with Examples of Data Handling 117
Risto Pellinen, Wolfgang Baumjohann, and Erling Nielsen, Examples of Multi-Instrumental Studies on Auroral Phenomena 124
Wolfgang Baumjohann, Magnetometer Networks in Northern Europe 134
W.F. Stuart, The Array of Magnetometers Operated in N.W. Europe 141
P. Tanskanen, J. Bjordal, L. P. Block, K. Bronstad, A. Egeland, T. Holtet, I. Iversen, I. Kangas, G. Kremser, M. M. Madsen, T. Moe, J. Niskanen, W. Riedler, H. Slamanig, J. Stadsnes, K. H. Saeger, E. Thrane, and S. Ullaland, SBARMO-79: A Multi-Balloon Campaign in the Auroral Zone 153
Gordon Rostoker, High Latitude North American Networks Operative During the IMS 159
R. L. McPherron, Midlatitude Magnetometer Chains During the IMS 170
T. J. Rosenberg, Research at United States Antarctic Stations During the IMS 182
Takesi Nagata and Takeo Hirasawa, IMS Results in Antarctica 188
Michael J. Rycroft, Antarctic Observations Available for IMS Correlative Analyses 196
E. Friis-Christensen, Geophysical Observations in Greenland During the IMS 211
Erling Nielsen, The STARE System and Some of its Applications 213
Richard R. Vondrak, Chatanika Radar Measurements During the IMS 225
M. J. Baron, Worldwide Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements 230

III. IMS Workshops

J. I. Vette, D. M. Sawyer, M. J. Teague, and D. J. Hei, Jr. The Origin and Evolution of the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop Process 235
Gordon Rostoker, Status of IMS Workshops-CDAW 1: December 1977 Events 242
R. H. Manka, T. A. Fritz, R. G. Johnson, R. A. Wolf, M. J. Teague, and J. I. Vette, Status of IMS Workshops - CDAW 2: July 1977 Events 246
K. Knott, The July 29, 1977 Magnetic Storm: Observations Near the Magnetopause at the Sudden Storm Commencement 256
D. N. Baker, T. A. Fritz and B. Wilken, The July 29, 1977 Magnetic Storm: Observations Modeling of Energetic Particles at Synchronous Orbit 259
Keith W. Ogilvie, ISEE Work on Collisionless Shocks: CDAW3: The Meeting and the Results 264
Gotz Paschmann, ISEE-Magnetopause Observations: Workshop Results 272
K Knott and R. Pellinen, Summary of European IMS Workshops 285

Appendix 291

Subject Index 293


      The International Magnetospheric Study, or IMS, was an international program under the auspices of SCOSTEP in which a coordinated effort was made to understand magnetospheric processes. The active phase of the IMS, during which data were gathered, ran from 1976 to 1979 with the different data gathering efforts coming on line at various times during this period. Although there were many national programs devoted to the IMS the coordination between countries was principally at the level of the participating scientists rather than at the level of the bureaucracy. This aspect of the IMS had its advantages and its disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is that there is no coordinated system for reporting of the IMS results, either with regard to the data gathering effort, the workshops devoted to these data or the scientific results of the IMS. It is in an attempt to introduce some order in this chaos we have compiled the papers in this book. We hope that the book serves both the active researcher involved heavily, in the IMS from the beginning and those who would like to gain entry into the IMS study effort. For while the active data gathering phase is over, the data analysis phase has just begun and there is much to do with the data.

      As should be apparent to most, and will be after reading about workshops in chapter three of this book, most papers are set down because of the existence of deadlines. We, of course, learned this in school, as all assignments have deadlines, but we sometimes forget about this in later life. The papers in this volume were also produced by deadlines. The first deadline was created by holding a symposium which we called the IMS Assessment Symposium and for which the authors were expected to produce manuscripts. The aims of the symposium were threefold, to identify what data were obtained during the IMS for coordinated studies, to assess the status of the various workshops which have been convened to facilitate such coordinated studies and to examine the status of the problems the IMS was designed to solve. One day of the conference was devoted to each of these areas. This book covers the first two areas. The third area is covered by a special issue of Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics.

      In order to exploit fully the data gathered during the IMS and to promote interaction between those who have the data and those who might wish to use the data, one must know what data are available and who has it. The first chapter of the book covers the "what, when and how" of the major IMS satellite programs. It also documents whom to contact to get the data. The second chapter covers similar informatlon on the major IMS ground-based rocket and balloon programs. We have not attempted to include all ground-based programs, rather only those with a large data base which have a moderately large possibility of being useful in coordinated studies. Those attempting to learn every possible detail about the IMS effort would be wise to read through the IMS Newsletters edited by J. H. Allen and published by the World Data Center A for STP.

      The third chapter covers the subject of workshops. Under the IMS workshop umbrella a large variety of workshops have been attempted. Some of these probably should not have been called workshops. They merely reported on the scientific results of the IMS. The Japanese workshops were of this kind. Other workshops approached the conventional concept of a workshop centered around an event or problem and consisting of both presentations and exchange of ideas and data on an informal basis. A new type of workshop evolved during the IMS as a result of the efforts of Gordon Rostoker and Jim Vette to get the IMS data analysis phase off the ground. This was the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop or CDAW which grew to be a computer-based event-oriented multi-data set analysis workshop. Machine readable data were sent to Jim Vette at the NSSDC and stored on disks. Later those who had sent in data assembled at the NSSDC and examined these data on common time scales and worked together on the analysis. But, it is best to let Jim Vette, Gordon Rostoker and the other workshop leaders tell you about this in their own words, as they do in chapter three.

      In school there were always some kids who failed to get their assignment in on time. Of course they all had excuses and some of them were very good excuses. The discerning reader will also note some absences in this book. Some absences may be due to the ignorance of the organizers. However, we had many people advising us about our ignorance before the IMSAS was held. In this regard we owe a special thank you to Bob Carovillano and the US IMS Panel on whose turf this conference was held. We would like to comment though on some notable absentees. First, Tom Potemra chose not to discuss Triad data availability because he felt there was sufficient reference to the data set in the literature already. The Japanese and the Soviets also flew spacecraft during the IMS. T. Obayashi did attend the meeting and discussed the results of Kyokko and Jikiken. However, he did not submit a manuscript to this volume, because the Japanese STP observations during IMS had already been compiled in volume 5 of Solar Terrestrial Environmental Research in Japan (June 1, 1981) available from the editor, A. Nishida. The Soviets had a different problem. The meeting was scheduled only six months after the initial announcement, which was too short a period for the Soviets to respond. We owe a special thanks to R. Lundin and B. Hultqvist who filled us in on at least some of the Prognoz 7 results.

      It was difficult to slice up the ground-based pie in an logical order. In some areas national efforts could be reviewed, in others the international effort for one technique was discussed. In the end analysis our decisions were arbitrary although hopefully not capricious.

      The glaring holes in this effort are in the Soviet sector in which there is a lot of ground and the French sector. The French representative could not attend nor could he provide a finished manuscript. The Japanese ground program was reviewed by T. Nagata and T. Hirasawa (Antartica) and by T. Obayashi (Japan proper) but we received a manuscript only from the former two authors. Those interested in the Japanese program are referred to the above mentioned volume.

      Those who have read through the above material can guess about the completeness of our workshop coverage. We cover the CDAW workshops and the European workshops. The Japanese held workshops but they were more like symposia than workshops and our invitations evoked no response, neither a talk nor a manuscript. We feel certain the Soviets have held IMS workshops and suspect that they are probably different in some respects from those described in Chapter Three. However, we will not benefit from the Soviet experience in this book. If you are planning to hold a workshop we strongly advise you to read Chapter Three even if it is incomplete.

      During the meeting a set of possible technical problems became evident which were addressed in the traditional manner by issuing a set of recommendations. These in general concern the treatment of IMS data sets especially their availability. These recommendations are included as an appendix.

      We would be remiss if we did not acknowledge the assistance we had in this effort. The real heroes are the authors who responded to our initial invitation with a presentation at the IMSAS and the completed manuscripts you will find herein. The conference ltself was a success principally through the efforts of Jim Vette and his staff with the advice and counsel of David Stern who hosted the meeting at the NSSDC. They did a splendid job. The daily sessions included not only the speakers but also a review panel. The review panels were there to represent the scientific community at large who were in general unable to attend. (Total attendance at the meeting was about 70 people). It was somewhat more difficult to entice people to join in the review panel even though it was an easier task. (There is probably a moral here). However, those who did attend were very active and useful. Since the only recognition they will get in this book despite their shaping of much of it through their questions and comments is here, we list them (alphabetically): D. Beard, K. Cole, C. G. Falthammar, B. Hultqvist, M. Kivelson, A. Nagy, T. Obayashi, G. Peiper, F. Rees, J. Roederer, E. Schmerling, D. Stern, M. Walt, G. Wrenn, and R. Wolf. We are very grateful for their efforts.

C.T. Russell
Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics University of California Los Angeles, California, USA

D.J. Southwood
Imperial College London, U.K.

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