Edited by C.T. RUSSELL Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California at Los Angeles. Reprinted from Space Science Reviews, Volume 60, Nos. 1-4, 1992 KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS DORDRECHT/BOSTON/LONDON XTABLE OF CONTENTS C. T. RUSSELL/Foreword 1 T. V. JOHNSON, C. M. YEATES, and R. YOUNG/Space Science Reviews Volume onGalileo Mission Overview 3 L. A. D'AMARIO, L. E. BRIGHT, and A. A. WOLF/Galileo Trajectory Design 23 H. M. FISCHER, J. D. MIHALOV, L. J. LANZEROTTI, G.WIBBERENZ, K. RINNERT, F. O. GLIEM, and J. BACH/Energetic Particles Investigation (EPI) 79 L. J. LANZEROTTI, K. RINNERT, G. DEHMEL, F. O. GLIEM, E. P. KRIDER, M. A. UMAN, G. UMLAUFT, and J. BACH/The Lightning and Radio Emission Detector (LRD)Instrument 91 H. B. NIEMANN, D. N. HARPOLD, S. K. ATREYA, G. R. CARIGNAN, D. M.HUNTEN, and T. C. OWEN/Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer Experiment 111 J. B. POLLACK, D. H. ATKINSON, A. SEIFF, and J. D. ANDERSON/ Retrieval of a Wind Profile from the Galileo Probe Telemetry Signal 143 B. RAGENT, C. A. PRIVETTE, P. AVRIN, J. G. WARING, C. E. CARLSTON, T. C.D. KNIGHT, and J. P. MARTIN/Galileo Probe Nephelometer Experiment 179 A. SEIFF and T. C. D. KNIGHT/The Galileo Probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument 203 L. A. SROMOVSKY, F. A. BEST, H. E. REVERCOMB, and J. HAYDEN/Galileo NetFlux Radiometer Experiment 233 U. VON ZAHN and D. M. HUNTEN/The Jupiter Helium Interferometer Experiment on the Galileo Entry Probe 263(0*0*0*L. A. FRANK, K. L. ACKERSON, J. A. LEE, M. R. ENGLISH, and G. L. PICKETT/The Plasma Instrumentation for the Galileo Mission 283 T. L. GARRARD, N. GEHRELS, and E. C. STONE/The Galileo Heavy Element Monitor305 E. GRUN, H. FECHTIG, M. S. HANNER, J. KISSEL, B. A. LINDBLAD, D. LINKERT,D. MAAS, GREGOR E. MORFILL, and HERBERT A. ZOOK/The Galileo Dust Detector 317 D. A. GURNETT, W. S. KURTH, R. R. SHAW, A. ROUX, R. GENDRIN, C. F.KENNEL, F. L. SCARF, and S. D. SHAWHAN/The Galileo Plasma Wave Investigation 341 M. G. KIVELSON, K. K. KHURANA, J. D. MEANS, C. T. RUSSELL, and R. C.SNARE/The Galileo Magnetic Field Investigation 357 D. J. WILLIAMS, R. W. MCENTIRE, S. JASKULEK, and B. WILKEN/The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector 385 M. J. S. BELTON, K. P. KLAASEN, M. C. CLARY, J. L. ANDERSON, C. D. ANGER, M. H. CARR, C. R. CHAPMAN, M. E. DAVIES, R. GREELEY, D. ANDERSON, L. K. BOLEF, T. E. TOWNSEND, R. GREENBERG, J. W. HEAD III, G. NEUKUM, C. B. PILCHER, J. VEVERKA, P. J. GIERASCH, F. P. FANALE, A. P. INGERSOLL, H. MASURSKY, D. MORRISON, and J. B. POLLACK/The Galileo Solid-State ImagingExperiment 413 R. W. CARLSON, P. R. WEISSMAN, W. D. SMYTHE, J. C. MAHONEY, and THE NIMS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING TEAMS/Near-Infrared Mapping SpectrometerExperiment on Galileo 457 C. W. HORD, W. E. MCCLINTOCK, A. I. F. STEWART, C. A. BARTH, L. W. ESPOSITO, G. E. THOMAS, B. R. SANDEL, D. M. HUNTEN, A. L. BROADFOOT, D.E. SHEMANSKY, J. M. AJELLO, A. L. LANE, and R. A. WEST/Galileo UltravioletSpectrometer Experiment 503 E. E. RUSSELL, F. G. BROWN, R. A. CHANDOS, W. C. FINCHER, L. F. KUBEL, A.A. LACIS, and L. D. TRAVIS/Galileo Photopolarimeter/Radiometer Experiment 531 J. D. ANDERSON, J. W. ARMSTRONG, J. K. CAMPBELL, F. B. ESTABROOK, T. P. KRISHER, and E. L. LAU/Gravitation and Celestial Mechanics Investigations with Galileo 591 H. T. HOWARD, V. R. ESHLEMAN, D. P. HINSON, A. J. KLIORE,G. F. LINDAL, R. WOO, M. K. BIRD, H. VOLLAND, P. EDENHOFER, M. PATZOLD, and H.PORSCHE / Galileo Radio Science Investigations 565(0*0*0*XF O R E W O R D Jupiter, as one of the brightest objects of the night sky, has always held a fascination formankind. That fascination intensified with the invention of the telescope. The discovery byGalileo of a small `planetary' system in orbit about Jupiter revolutionized the world's view ofits place in the Universe. No longer did the Universe revolve around the Earth. The Earthbecame but one of many worlds. Telescopic observations of the Jovian system also made a major contribution to modern physics. The timing of eclipses of the Galilean moons led tothe first measurement of the velocity of light. The telescope also gives atmospheric scientistsan opportunity to study a 4 century old enigma, the Great Red Spot. Is it a giant storm that has been raging for over 4 centuries or is it related to some structure in the interior ofJupiter? The fascination deepened once again with the invention of another type of telescope, theradio telescope. In 1955 B. F. Burke and K. L. Franklin discovered that Jupiter emittedintense radio waves. This led almost immediately to the conclusion that Jupiter had a strongmagnetic field and an intense radiation belt. Jupiter soon became the target of our fledglingplanetary program, with visits by Pioneer 10 in 1973, Pioneer 11 in 1974, and Voyager 1and 2 in 1979. These four space Probes provided brief glimpses into the magnetosphere andthe atmosphere of the planet and returned pictures of the Galilean satellites, worlds quitealien to our own. The momentum had been building through these years for the next step in the exploration ofthe Jovian system, an orbiter. When this Jovian orbiter was approved by NASA, it was onlyfitting that it be named for the first explorer of the Jovian system, Galileo. The 1980's wasa decade of planning, designing, building, and rebuilding as the Galileo mission got off to aslow start because of the ever changing availability of launchers in NASA's fleet during theseyears. Eventually in October 1989, Galileo was launched and sent on its way via Venus andthe Earth (twice) on its voyage to Jupiter with arrival in December 1995. The articles that follow in this volume represent our attempt to document the Galileo missionand make it accessible to the broader scientific community. The volume begins with amission overview by the project scientist, Torrence Johnson, and his colleagues which detailsthe science objectives of the mission and describes how these objectives will be addressed.This article is followed by one by L. A. D'Amario and colleagues on the design of thespacecraft trajectory, a key element of the mission planning process that allows the oftenconflicting objectives of the mission to be met. Following these articles are descriptions ofinvestigations by the various investigator groups associated with the mission. Most of theseinvolve dedicated hardware but some, such as the article by Interdisciplinary Scientist J.Pollack and colleagues and those by the Radio Science and the Gravitation and CelestialMechanics teams, discuss the use of spacecraft telemetry signals to further the scientificobjectives of the missions. We have divided the mission into three sections. The Probe articles are presented first, as appropriate for these investigations that will provide much of the initial science return in the mission as the Probe descends through the atmosphere on the day of orbit insertion.(0*0*0*Then we present the `magnetospheric' instruments which provide local measurements of theJovian system. Finally we present the remote sensing instruments and the radio science investigations. It is hoped that these articles will provide interested planetary and space scientists someinsight into what Galileo is expected to achieve and how the requisite measurements will bemade. The compilation of this volume is due to the efforts of many individuals, especiallythe referees and the authors, who worked together to develop readable and completedescriptions of the investigations. We also wish to remember Clayne Yeates of the GalileoScience Office who assisted in the very early phases of this project but whose untimely deathdid not allow him to see its completion. C. T. RUSSELL