Proceedings of the Symposium D0.1 of COSPAR Scientific Commission D which was held during the Thirty-First COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Birmingham, United Kingdom,

14-21 July, 1996

 Edited by

 C. T. Russell

Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567, USA



Program Committee

C. T. Russell, U.S.A.

A. Nishida, Japan


Published for





Editorial Comment


M. A. Shea




C. T. Russell




Chapter 1. IASTP Missions and Programs


IASTP and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

D.N. Baker and R. Carovillano


The GEOTAIL Mission: Principal Characteristics and Scientific Results


A. Nishida, T. Yamamoto, and T. Mukai


INTERBALL - Dual Probe and Dual Mission


L.M. Zelenyi, P. P. Triska, and A.A. Petrukovich


The WIND Spacecraft and its Early Scientific Results


K.W. Ogilvie and M.D. Desch


POLAR - From the Top Down


R.A. Hoffman


Phoenix and Cluster II - Towards a Recovery from the Loss of Cluster


R. Schmidt, C.P. Escoubet, and M.L. Goldstein


SOHO - Its Day in the Sun


V. Domingo


Additional Spacecraft Data Sources Contributing to the ISTP Program


J.H. King


Ground-Based Supporting Programmes for the IASTP


H.J. Opgenoorth




Chapter 2. The Solar Wind and Heliosphere


IACG Campaign III: Solar Events and their Manifestation in Interplanetary Space and in Geospace


R.A. Harrison


The IACG Campaign IV: Solar Sources of Heliospheric Structure Observed out of the Ecliptic


A.B. Galvin and H.S. Hudson


Particle Acceleration at the Interplanetary Shock Ahead of a Large Magnetic Cloud on October 18, 1995: GEOTAIL-WIND Collaboration


T. Terasawa, N. Shimada, K. Tsubouchi, M. Hoshino, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, T. Yamamoto, A. Nishida, S. Machida, S. Kokubun, H. Matsumoto, H. Kojima, T.R. Sanderson, A.J. Lazarus, J.T. Steinberg and R.P. Lepping


Observations of the Solar Wind, the Bow Shock and Upstream Particles with the WIND 3D Plasma Instrument


R.P. Lin, D.E. Larson, R.E. Ergun, J.P. McFadden, C.W. Carlson, T.D. Phan, S. Ashford, K.A. Anderson, M. McCarthy, R. Skoug, G.K. Parks, H. Rème, J.M. Bosqued, C. d'Uston, T.R. Sanderson and K-P. Wenzel


Using Energetic Electrons to Probe the Topology of the October 18-20, 1995 Magnetic Cloud


D.E. Larson, R.P. Lin, R.E. Ergun, J.M. McTiernan, J.P. McFadden, C.W. Carlson, K.A. Anderson, M. McCarthy, G.K. Parks, H. Rème, T.R. Sanderson, M. Kaiser and R.P. Lepping


Multipoint Study of the Solar Wind: INTERBALL Contribution to the Topic


Z. Nemecek, J. Safrankova, G. Zastenker, and P. Triska




Chapter 3. Upstream Waves


What Do We Really Know about Upstream Waves?


D. Burgess


Plasma Waves in the Upstream and Bow Shock Regions Observed by GEOTAIL


H. Matsumoto, H. Kojima, Y. Kasaba, T. Miyake, R.R. Anderson, and T. Mukai


Langmuir Wave Amplitudes and the Electron Distribution Function Near the Solar Wind-Foreshock Boundary


S.D. Bale, G. Chisham, D. Burgess and S.J. Schwartz


GEOTAIL Observations of 2fp Emission around the Terrestrial Electron Foreshock


Y. Kasaba, H. Matsumoto, and R.R. Anderson


WIND Observation of Gyrating-Like Ion Distributions and Low-Frequency Waves Upstream from the Earth's Bow Shock


K. Meziane, C. Mazelle, C. d'Uston, H. Rème, R.P. Lin, C.W. Carlson, D. Larson J.P. McFadden, R.E. Ergun, K.A. Anderson, G.K. Parks, D. Berdichevsky, and R.P. Lepping


Kinetic Theory Mode Properties: Application to Low-Frequency Waves in the Ion Foreshock


X. Blanco-Cano and S.J. Schwartz




Chapter 4. Bow Shock


What Do We Really Know about Collisionless Shocks?


N.A. Krall


Bow Shock Expansion Caused by the Magnetic Cloud Passage on October 18, 1995


K. Tsubouchi, T. Terasawa, N. Shimada, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, T. Yamamoto, A.Nishida, S. Machida, S. Kokubun, H. Matsumoto, H. Kojima, A.J. Lazarus, J.T. Steinberg, and R.P. Lepping


Non-stationarity and Low-Frequency Turbulence at a Quasiperpendicular Shock Front


M.A. Balikhin, S.N. Walker, T. Dudok de Wit, H.St.C.K. Alleyne, L.J.C. Woolliscroft, W.A.C. Mier-Jedrzejowicz, and W. Baumjohann


Observations of the Fine Structure of Ion Distribution Function at the Bow Shock


V.N. Smirnov, O.L. Vaisberg, L.A. Avanov, A.A. Petrukovich, A.A. Skalsky, J.L. Burch, and J.H. Waite, Jr.



Chapter 5. Magnetosheath


Investigations of Hydrodynamic and Magnetohydrodynamic Equations across the Bow Shock and along the Outer Edge of Planetary Obstacles


S.M. Petrinec and C.T. Russell


What Do We Really Know about the Magnetosheath?


P. Song and C.T. Russell


GEOTAIL Observations of Magnetosheath Flow Properties, with Simultaneous Observations of the Solar Wind by the WIND Spacecraft


S.M. Petrinec, T. Mukai, A. Nishida, T. Yamamoto, T.K. Nakamura, and S. Kokubun




Chapter 6. Magnetopause, Boundary Layer, and Cusp


GEOTAIL Observation at the Dayside Magnetopause - Confirmation of Reconnection Events


M. Nakamura, M. Fujimoto, H. Kawano, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, T. Yamamoto, K. Tsuruda, T. Terasawa, and S. Kokubun


INTERBALL Observations of the Dayside Magnetopause


O.L. Vaisberg, L.A. Avanov, V.N. Smirnov, J.L. Burch, J.H. Waite, Jr., A.A. Petrukovich, and A.A. Skalsky


Two-Point Observation of Magnetopause Motion: The INTERBALL Project


J. Safrankova, Z. Nemecek, L. PÍech, G. Zastenker, A. Fedorov, S. Romanov, D. Sibeck, and J. Šimunek


The Low-Latitude Flank Magnetosheath, Magnetopause and Boundary Layer: WIND Observations


T.D. Phan, D. Larson, M. Moyer, J.P. McFadden, R.P. Lin, C.W. Carlson, M. McCarthy, G.K. Parks, H. Rème, T.R. Sanderson, R. Lepping, and K.I. Paularena


A GEOTAIL Observation of the Low-Latitude Boundary Layer


M. Fujimoto, T. Mukai, H. Kawano, M. Nakamura, A. Nishida, Y. Saito, T. Yamamoto, and S. Kokubun


Cusp and Boundary Layer Observations by INTERBALL


I.Sandahl, R. Lundin, M. Yamauchi, U. Eklund, J. Safrankova, Z. Nemecek, K. Kudela, R.P. Lepping, R.P. Lin, V.N. Lutsenko, and J-A. Sauvaud


Initial Results from the POLAR Magnetic Fields Investigation


C. T. Russell, G. Le, X-W. Zhou, P.H. Reiff, J.G. Luhmann, C.A. Cattell, R.L. McPherron, and M. Ashour-Abdalla


Initial TIMAS Observations of Ion Conic Heating in the Cusp


E.G. Shelley, H. Balsiger, J.L. Burch, C.W. Carlson, H.L. Collin, J.F. Drake, J. Geiss, A.G. Chielmetti, A. Johnstone, O.W. Lennartsson, G. Paschmann, W.K. Peterson, H. Rosenbauer, D.M. Walton, B.A. Whalen, and D.T. Young


Comparison of Lunar and Terrestrial Ion Measurements Obtained by WIND and GEOTAIL Spacecraft Outside and Inside of the Earth's Magnetosphere


E. Kirsch, B. Wilken, G. Gloeckler, A.B. Galvin, U. Mall, and D. Hovestadt


Energetic Particles in the Vicinity of the Dawn Magnetopause


Z. Nemecek, J. Safrankova, O. Santolík, K. Kudela, and E.T. Sarris


Statistical Study on Electron Cyclotron Harmonic Waves Observed in the Dayside Magnetosphere


H. Usui, J. Koizumi, and H. Matsumoto




Chapter 7. Magnetospheric Dynamics and the Sun-Earth Connection


Ground Observations of Dayside Small-Scale Dynamic Features


T. Moretto and E. Friis-Christensen


Incoherent Scatter Radar Observations Related to Magnetospheric Dynamics


S.W.H. Cowley and M. Lockwood


Testing Substorm Theories: The Need for Multipoint Observations


M. Lockwood


Mapping Ionospheric Substorm Response


D.J. Knipp and B.A. Emery


What Do We Really Know about Solar Wind Coupling?


J. G. Luhmann


What Do We Really Know about the Sun-Climate Connection?


E. Friis-Christensen and H. Svensmark


Fields and Flows at GEOTAIL during a Moderate Storm


R.L. McPherron, R. Nakamura, S. Kokubun, Y. Kamide, K. Shiokawa, K. Yumoto, T. Mukai, Y. Saito, K. Hayashi, T. Nagai, S. Ables, D.N. Baker, E. Friis-Christensen, B. Fraser, T. Hughes, G. Reeves, and H. Singer


First Observations by the CEPPAD Imaging Proton Spectrometer aboard POLAR


H.E. Spence and J.B. Blake




Chapter 8. Magnetotail and Plasma Sheet


IACG Campaign I Summary Report: Initial Results


T. Mukai and L.M. Zelenyi


Structure of the Distant Magnetotail and its Dependence on the IMF By Component: GEOTAIL Observations


K. Maezawa, T. Hori, T. Mukai, Y Saito, T. Yamamoto, S. Kokubun, and A. Nishida


Substorms, Tail Flows, and Plasmoids


T. Nagai, R. Nakamura, T. Mukai, T. Yamamoto, A. Nishida, and S. Kokubun


Origin of Hot and High-Speed Plasmas in Plasma Sheet: Plasma Acceleration and Heating due to Slow Shocks


M. Hoshino, Y. Saito, T. Mukai, A. Nishida, S. Kokubun, and T. Yamamoto


INTERBALL Observations of the Plasma Sheet


Yu. I. Yermolaev


Two-Point Measurement of Hot Plasma Structures in the Magnetotail Lobes


O. Santolík, J. Safrankova, Z. Nemecek, J-A. Sauvaud, A. Fedorov, and G. Zastenker


INTERBALL Magnetotail Boundary Case Studies


S.P. Savin, O. Balan, N. Borodkova, E. Budnik, N. Nikolaeva, V. Prokhorenko, A. Blagau, J. Blecki, J. Büchner, M. Ciobanu, E. Dubinin, Yu. Yermolaev, M. Echim, T. Pulkkinen, N. Rybjeva, J. Safrankova, I. Sandahl, E. Amata, U. Auster, G. Bellucci, A. Fedorov, V. Formisano, R. Grard, V.Ivchenko, F. Jiricek, J. Juchniewicz, S. Klimov, V. Korepanov, H. Koskinen, K. Kudela, R. Lundin, V. Lutsenko, O. Marghitu, Z. Nemecek, B. Nikutowski, M. Nozdrachev, S. Orsini, M. Parrot, A. Petrukovich, N. Pissarenko, S. Romanov, J. Rauch, J. Rustenbach, J-A. Sauvaud, E.T. Sarris, A. Skalsky, J. Smilauer, P. P. Triska, J.G. Trotignon, J. Vojta, G. Zastenker, L. Zelenyi, Yu. Agafonov, V. Grushin, V. Khrapchenkov, L. Prech, and O. Santolik


Flux Ropes in the Magnetotail: Consequences for Ion Populations


R.L. Richard, R.J. Walker, T. Ogino, and M. Ashour-Abdalla




Chapter 9. Remote Sensing and Auroral Processes


What Do We Really Know about Auroral Acceleration?


M. Temerin


Auroral Observations by the POLAR Ultraviolet Imager UVI


M. Brittnacher, J. Spann, G. Parks, and G. Germany


X-Ray Imaging of the Aurora


J. Stadsnes, K. Aarsnes, and J. Bjordal


Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging by the Astrid Microsatellite


S. Barabash, P. C:son Brandt, O. Norberg, R. Lundin, E.C. Roelof, C.J. Chase, B.H. Mauk, and H. Koskinen


ENA Imaging from the Swedish Micro Satellite Astrid during the Magnetic Storm of 8 February 1995


P.C. Brandt, S. Barabash, O. Norberg, R. Lundin, E.C. Roelof, C.J. Chase, B.H. Mauk, and M. Thomsen


Magnetospheric Resonance, Auroral Structure, and Multipoint Measurements


W. Lotko and A.V. Streltsov


ISTP: Relativistic Particle Acceleration and Global Energy Transport


D.N. Baker, H.E. Spence, and J.B. Blake




Chapter 10. Instrumentation and Techniques


Estimation of Electron Density of Ionospheric Plasma Using Wave, Impedance and Topside Sounder Data


A.Kiraga, Z. Klos, H. Rothkaehl, Z. Zbyszynski, V.N. Oraevsky, S.A. Pulinets, and I.S. Prutenski


Magnetospheric Geomagnetic Coordinates for Space Physics Data Presentation and Visualization


V.O. Papitashvili, N.E. Papitashvili, and J.H. King


Merging 4 Spacecraft Data: Concepts Used for Analysing Discontinuities


M.W. Dunlop, T.I. Woodward, D.J. Southwood, K.-H. Glassmeier, and R. Elphic






At the 31st Plenary meeting of COSPAR held in Birmingham, England, a symposium was convened by Commission D to discuss the results of the Inter-Agency Solar Terrestrial Program. The IASTP comprises the GEOTAIL, WIND, INTERBALL/TAIL, SOHO and POLAR missions launched prior to the conference and the INTERBALL/AURORA and FAST missions launched after the July 14-21, 1996 symposium. Also an integral part of the program are numerous existing satellites, such as IMP-8, DMSP and GOES, various ground-based observational programs such as the SuperDARN incoherent radars and theoretical support. The symposium attempted to reflect this diversity. The celebration of the outstanding success of the program to date was dampened by the destruction of the four Cluster spacecraft by the failure of the maiden launch of the Ariane 5. This four spacecraft mission had been expected to be the centerpiece of the IASTP effort. The Inter-Agency Solar Terrestrial Program is often referred to as the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program or ISTP program but we use IASTP here to emphasize the critical role that the Inter-Agency Consultative Group (IACG) has played in gaining approval for these missions, getting them successfully into space, and coordinating their operations. The IACG consists of the heads of the space agencies of the four main space-faring "countries" -- Europe, Japan, Russia, and the United States.


The symposium consisted of both invited and contributed papers with about equal numbers of each. The scientific program was organized with the assistance of co-convener A. Nishida with the advice of M. Acuna, C. Carlson, E. Friis-Christensen, W. J. Hughes, H. J. Opgenoorth, R. Schmidt, I. Sandahl, and L. M. Zelenyi. The symposium was a great success occupying a jammed four days of the conference. There were 107 presentations of which 47 were posters and the rest, oral. These sessions were all well attended and lively. Of the 107 presenters, 69 submitted papers for the proceedings, and of these 65 appear in this volume. These papers provide a good cross section of the results being obtained by the IASTP with somewhat less emphasis on the measurements from the spacecraft most recently launched and no results, of course, from the two spacecraft launched after the conference. The SOHO mission was well represented at the COSPAR meeting in the sessions of Commission E, the proceedings of which will be published in a separate volume.


This volume is divided into ten topical sections. The first section deals with the missions and program that constitute the IASTP. The first paper by D. N. Baker and R. Carovillano establishes the objectives of the IASTP program for furthering our understanding of solar terrestrial physics. This is followed by a review of the first IASTP mission, GEOTAIL, by A. Nishida and colleagues. L. M. Zelenyi and colleagues then review the two INTERBALL missions, the tail probe and the auroral probe, both of which were launched with accompanying subsatellites but only one of which worked entirely successfully. Next K. W. Ogilvie and M. D. Desch describe the WIND mission and its early successes, followed by a similar report on the POLAR mission by R. A. Hoffman. The loss of the four Cluster spacecraft in the Ariane 5 explosion and the efforts to recover the mission objectives with the Phoenix and Cluster II missions is described by R. Schmidt and colleagues. V. Domingo then reviews the SOHO mission, that not only is providing critical data on the outer layer of the sun, but also key data on the initiation of disturbances that are carried to the Earth and studied by the other IASTP spacecraft. This section of the book closes with a discussion by J. H. King of the spacecraft, other than those launched specifically as part of the IASTP programs, that are being utilized by IASTP researchers, and a review by H. J. Opgenoorth of the ground-based programs that are essential to the success of the IASTP effort.


Beginning with Section Two the volume covers the individual successes of the program starting in the solar wind and moving through the magnetosphere. One of the ways the program is achieving its goals is through a series of four campaigns addressing specific areas. Two of these campaigns are discussed in this section. Campaign III investigating solar events and their manifestation in interplanetary space is described by R. A. Harrison, while campaign IV examining solar sources of heliospheric structure observed out of the ecliptic is described by A. B. Galvin and H. S. Hudson. A description of Campaign I can be found in Section Eight. Campaign II on the magnetopause and boundary layers is being led by G. Paschmann but has yet to get started, in part because of the destruction of the four Cluster spacecraft. After the description of the two campaigns follows a discussion of measurements of the structure of the interplanetary medium obtained by GEOTAIL and WIND. T. Terasawa and colleagues discuss the acceleration of particles ahead of the large magnetic cloud on October 18, 1995; R. P. Lin and colleagues discuss the WIND measurements of the solar wind, bow shock and upstream particles; and D. E. Larson and colleagues discuss the topology of the October 18, 1995 magnetic cloud. Finally, Z. Nemecek et al. discuss INTERBALL multipoint studies of the solar wind.


Section Three covers the latest results in the foreshock, the region of backstreaming charged particles on magnetic field lines connected to the bow shock that is replete with ULF and VLF waves generated by wave-particle instabilities. The section begins with an article by D. Burgess on what we have learned about upstream waves over the last 15 years. Papers by H. Matsumoto and colleagues, by S. D. Bale and colleagues, and by Y. Kasaba and colleagues discuss the plasma waves associated with backstreaming electrons. Following are papers by K. Meziane et al. and by X. Blanco-Cano and S. J. Schwartz that discuss the low-frequency, ULF waves in the foreshock.


Processes at the collisionless shock are covered in Section Four. N. A. Krall introduces the topic with an overview of what is known about collisionless shocks. K. Tsubouchi and colleagues review the motion of the bow shock associated with a change in solar wind conditions. M. A. Balikhin et al. and V. N. Smirnov et al. examine processes associated with dissipation in the shock.


Section Five follows with three papers on the region behind the bow shock, the magnetosheath. S. M. Petrinec and C. T. Russell examine the jump in plasma parameters across the bow shock and the pressure distribution along the magnetopause. P. Song and C. T. Russell examine what we really know about the magnetosheath. S. M. Petrinec and colleagues examine how magnetic geometry affects the flow properties in the magnetosheath.


The region of coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere: the magnetopause, the boundary layer and the cusp, are covered in Section Six. M. Nakamura and colleagues show evidence for reconnection at the dayside magnetopause as revealed in the GEOTAIL measurements. O. Vaisberg and colleagues discuss plasma measurements from INTERBALL in the same region while J. Safrankova et al. show how the MAGION subsatellite can be used with the main INTERBALL tail spacecraft to measure the motion of the magnetopause. T. D. Phan and colleagues review the WIND measurements along the low-latitude flank of the magnetopause. M. Fujimoto et al. discuss the GEOTAIL observations of the low-latitude boundary layer and I. Sandahl et al. cover INTERBALL observations. Initial POLAR measurements in and near the polar cusp are presented by C. T. Russell et al. and E. G. Shelley et al. The moon also is a source of detectable ions at high altitudes. E. Kirsch and colleagues show such measurements from both WIND and GEOTAIL. Z. Nemecek et al. then examine energetic particles in the vicinity of the dawn magnetopause and H. Usui et al. examine electron cyclotron waves in the dayside magnetosphere.


With Section Seven we move into the magnetosphere proper covering the dynamics of the magnetosphere and the linkage between geomagnetic activity and the sun. The IASTP program consists of more than just a set of space-based observations. For the phenomena that occur within the magnetosphere, the measurements made on the surface of the Earth are important. This importance is underlined by the first four papers of this section covering small-scale dynamic features in the current systems at the edge of the polar cap (T. Moretto and E. Friis-Christensen); incoherent radar studies of ionospheric flows (S. W. H. Cowley and M. Lockwood); multipoint measurements to test models of the substorm process (M. Lockwood); and the inversion of ground magnetometer measurements to infer magnetospheric current systems and electric fields (D. J. Knipp and B. A. Emery). This section continues with a summary of what we know about how the solar wind couples to the terrestrial magnetosphere by J. G. Luhmann and what we know about the possible influence of solar variability on the Earth=s climate by E. Friis-Christensen and H. Svensmark. The section closes with two papers on the substorm process. One by R. L. McPherron and a large supporting cast discusses an example of GEOTAIL measurements during a substorm; the other, by H. E. Spence and J. B. Blake, discusses remote sensing of energetic neutral particles during a substorm from the POLAR spacecraft.


Some of the earliest and some of the most recent measurements of the IASTP program have been made in the Earth=s geomagnetic tail. The first spacecraft to be launched in this program was GEOTAIL which used close lunar flyby passes to adjust the orbit to keep the line of apsides of the orbit centered in the tail. Much later the INTERBALL tail probe was launched to join GEOTAIL in the exploration of the magnetotail and plasma sheet, but it did not maintain its line of apsides in the tail. Section Eight covers the region of the magnetosphere beginning with a summary of the results of the first IACG Campaign on the tail and plasma sheet by T. Mukai and L. M. Zelenyi. Then three papers follow on various aspects of GEOTAIL measurements: the structure of the distant magnetotail by K. Maezawa and colleagues; substorms, tail flows and plasmoids by T. Nagai et al.; and plasma acceleration and heating by M. Hoshino et al. Following these papers are three manuscripts on INTERBALL tail measurements: plasma sheet observations by Yu. Yermolaev; hot plasma structures in the magnetotail lobes by O. Santolik and colleagues; and a case study of the magnetotail boundary by S. P. Savin and a host of coauthors. Finally, the section closes with a theoretical discussion by R. L. Richard and company on the consequences of flux ropes in the magnetotail for ion populations.


Section Nine covers remote sensing and auroral processes beginning with a review of what we know about auroral acceleration by M. Temerin. This is followed by four papers on remote sensing of the auroral regions. The first of these by M. Brittnacher et al. discusses POLAR ultraviolet imaging; the second by J. Stadsnes et al. discusses X-ray imaging; and the last two by S. Barabash et al. and by P. C:son Brandt et al. cover energetic neutral atom imaging by Astrid. The section closes with two theoretical works, one by W. Lotko and A. V. Streltsov on standing ULF waves and the other (by D. N. Baker et al.) discussing the origin of relativistic particles in the magnetosphere.


Finally Section Ten covers the instrumentation and techniques of relevance to the IASTP program. It contains three papers. The first by A. Kiraga and colleagues discusses the limitations of electron density measurements in the ionosphere using various wave techniques. Next V. O. Papitashvili et al. discuss the magnetospheric coordinates needed to present and visualize space physics data. In the final paper, M. W. Dunlop and colleagues discuss techniques for analyzing discontinuities with four closely spaced satellites such as with Cluster.


In closing I would like to thank the referees who worked so hard at the meeting and afterward to review the papers, and thus permitted the timely production of this volume:

G. Atkinson, J. Birn, J. Büchner, D. Burgess, S. Cowley, E. Friis-Christensen, H. Funsten, H. Kawano, K. Khurana, J. King, E. Kirsch, D. Knipp, R. Lin, M. Lockwood, J. Luhmann, A. Lui, D. Mitchell, T. Moretto, T. Mukai, H. Opgenoorth, G. Parks, S. Petrinec, T. Phan, C. Russell, J. Safrankova, I. Sandahl, T. Sanderson, P. Song, and T. Terasawa. Last but not least, I would like to thank my own staff at UCLA, in particular Nina Pereira, Anne McGlynn, Chris Casler and Sophie Wong who assisted me greatly both prior to the conference and after it. All this made my job much easier.



C. T. Russell

Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

University of California, Los Angeles

April, 1997