TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Space Physics Group has five major thrusts: instrumentation for space flight and ground-based programs; the analysis of scientific data from space and ground-based measurement programs; the dissemination of observations from the ground and space projects to the community; fostering communication in the space physics community; and furthering education in space physics. In addition to our efforts in interplanetary physics and magnetospheric and ionospheric physics we have recently added an effort in atmospheric electricity. Some human highlights from 1996-97 are the following additions to the SPG staff:
Presently we are developing two new instruments. The first is an inexpensive vector magnetometer for ground-based studies. Our target cost is $5,000. We plan to install 22 of these units in a 2D array in China; one in Mexico; one in Peru; 20 in the US and three in Canada. Most of the funding for these magnetometers has been secured. We installed the first two units in China in July 1996. Guan Le is the scientific lead for this development. Joe Means and Don Dearborn are in charge of the engineering effort. The second instrument being developed is a scalar proton free-precession magnetometer for a rocket launch and eventual space flight. The new feature of this instrument is that, unlike most scalar magnetometers, it has no dead zones and hence will work on a spinning spacecraft. Bob Strangeway is the scientific lead for this development with Joe Means leading the engineering development. Finally, Bob Snare, Debbie Huddleston and graduate student, Tamitha Mulligan, have been assisting with the test and integration of the fluxgate magnetometer on the Cassini spacecraft due for launch in October 1997.
The year 1997 has been a tremendous year for the Space Physics Group's analysis effort as data from three missions in which it is heavily involved have rolled in: the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission; the POLAR mission, and the FAST mission. The NEAR mission will perform a geophysical and geochemical study of the asteroid 433 Eros, arriving in January 1999. C. T. Russell is a member of the magnetometer team. The POLAR spacecraft is in a 9x2 Re polar orbit studying the high altitude, high latitude magnetosphere and the aurora. C. T. Russell is the Principal Investigator of the POLAR magnetometer. Guan Le, Hedi Kawano and Xiaowen Zhou have been assisting with the initial analysis. The FAST mission is in a 400x4000 km polar orbit returning data principally on magnetospheric processes occurring above the auroral zones. The Space Physics Group engineers built the search coil and fluxgate magnetometer for this spacecraft. Bob Strangeway is leading the UCLA analysis of the data from this mission. Some of the accomplishments in our several programs are listed in the following paragraphs.
We continued our analysis of the data on Trans-Ionospheric Pulse Pairs obtained by the Blackbeard receiver, which showed that TIPPs are associated with positive cloud pulses and found the time and location (S. E. Kansas) of a discharge responsible for a particular TIPP. This provided strong support for the hypothesis that reflection of the pulse from the ground provides the second pulse of the pulse pair. (Strangeway/Zuelsdorf/Russell).
We also continued studies of the high altitude, high latitude magnetosphere concentrating on the polar cusp, field-aligned currents and the ring current. We began collaboration with Interball, researchers S. Savin, A. Federov and V. Smirnov to study the polar cusp, magnetopause and bow shock (Russell/Zhou/Gedalin). In addition we began collaboration with NRL numerical simulationists J. Fedder and S. Slinker, to determine how accurately MHD simulations could predict magnetospheric behavior from the observed solar wind conditions. (Russell/Zhou). We found that the properties of the polar cusp depend strongly on the tilt angle of the dipole axis to the solar wind flow (Zhou/Russell) and that the ring current could be monitored through measurements at low altitudes over the polar cap (Le/Russell).
We also examined the behavior of waves in the neighborhood of Io. We showed that the amplitude of ion cyclotron waves seen at Io was consistent with the expected mass loading rate of SO2+ (Huddleston) and that mirror mode waves were observed in the wake of Io (Russell/Huddleston/Kivelson). We found an apparent instability of the inner edge of the Jovian magnetodisk (Russell/Khurana/Kivelson).
Retrospective studies of Pioneer Venus observations of magnetic clouds in the solar wind have shown that the leading polarity of clouds with their rope-like axes in the ecliptic plane is controlled by the overall magnetic polarity of the sun. Further, the inclination of their axes seems to be controlled by the orientation of the streamer belt on the sun. This is the first evidence for the intimate control of magnetic clouds by the global field of the sun (Mulligan/Luhmann/Russell).
The Space Physics Group's low-cost, high-precision, fluxgate magnetometer was tested in the field and improved over the last year. Two units were installed in China, and data have been received from both sites. In the coming year a dozen new units will be installed (Le/Means/Russell). Copies of these magnetometers have been delivered to Florida, Mexico, Los Alamos and Jicamara, Peru.
The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) explorer, which was launched on August 21, 1996 continues to provide excellent high resolution data. The AC and DC magnetometers, provided by the Space Science Center, are fully operational, and provide data on field-aligned currents (DC), as well as a variety of wave phenomena. At UCLA we are investigating the auroral density cavity, where auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is generated. We have found that the plasma densities can be extremely low, indicating that the auroral cavity is populated mainly by hot electrons, enhancing the growth of AKR (Strangeway).
Due to our long involvement in Space Physics research, we have built a tremendous data base of measurements of the solar terrestrial system. As part of NSF's Global Environmental Measurement program and later in cooperation with the Space Physics Data System, we set up systems for the dissemination of those data to the community. We originally set up an on-line data base of IMP-8 data. We then developed a web-based distribution system for this effort. Recently we added POLAR magnetometer data to this system. We are now adding two more large data bases. With a grant from the SPDS, Guan Le is providing on-line access to the ground-based magnetometer data obtained during the IMS (1977+) and Bob Strangeway is providing on-line access to the ISEE1 and 2 magnetometer data.
We continued serving as the editors of the SPA Newsletter and Web pages (Le). The SPA Newsletter is an electronics newsletter issued about twice a week to over 1600 people in the community of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy section. The SPA Web page contains information on the SPA section, meetings, publications, newsletters, as well as links to SPA-related Web pages and space physicists' personal home pages.
We also continued serving as the editor of the GEM newsletters and Web pages (Le). The GEM newsletters include an electronics newsletter, the GEM Messenger, and a hard copy version, the GEMstone, issued to about 400 people involved in the NSF's Geospace Environmental Modeling Program. The GEM Web page contains information on campaigns and working group activities, workshops, reports of past workshops, online poster sessions, online access to IMP-8 and ISEE-3 solar wind data, as well as newsletter archives. It also provides links to GEM-related data servers.
There are four major developments in education from the Space Physics Group. First, there is its development of the interactive Space Physics educational software, also known as Xspace. We continue to update and distribute this package. Second, we continue to participate in the International Space Physics Education Consortium that is fostering and coordinating computer-based instruction in Space Physics. Third, C. T. Russell is the Director of UCLA's branch of the California Space Grant activities. Fourth, the book Introduction to Space Physics, edited by M. G. Kivelson and C. T. Russell continues to sell well. In fact it was into its second printing even before its first anniversary. C. T. Russell also taught ESS 240 Space Plasma Physics this year.
Hideaki (Hedi) Kawano from the University of Tokyo continued his extended visit with us through 1996, finally being able to analyze the data from the POLAR spacecraft, the original reason for his visit.
Tom Higuchi from the Institute for Statistical Analysis in Japan joined us through the end of 1996.
For shorter periods we were joined by Sergey Savin from the Space Research Institute in Moscow, Ye Yeroshenko from IZMIRAN, Fran Bagenal from the University of Colorado, Xochitl Blanco-Cano from UNAM, Mexico, Mark Moldwin from the Florida Institute of Technology, Pat Reiff from Rice University, and J. G. Luhmann and F. Fenrich from U.C. Berkeley.
C. T. Russell, Predicting the strength of the ring current, presented at the 31st Scientific Assembly of COSPAR, Birmingham, July1996.
C. T. Russell, POLAR observations of the Polar Cusp, presented at the 31st Scientific Assembly of COSPAR, Birmingham, July 1996.
C. T. Russell, Initial Galileo magnetometer results, presented at the 1996 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, Brisbane, Australia, July 1996, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 77 (22), Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting Suppl., W71, 1996.
C. T. Russell, International Jupiter watch: Ten years of collaborative science, presented at the 1996 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, Brisbane, Australia, July 1996, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 77 (22), Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting Suppl., W72, 1996.
C. T. Russell, Lunar Magnetism, Paleopoles and Keith Runcorn, presented at Fall AGU Meeting, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 77 (46), F40, 1996.
C. T. Russell, K. K. Khurana, M. G. Kivelson, R. J. Walker, and D. E. Huddleston, A Global Reconfiguration of the Jovian Magnetosphere: The Jovian counterpart of a terrestrial substorm, presented at Fall AGU Meeting, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 77 (46), F431, 1996.
C. T. Russell, H. Kawano, X. W. Zhou, G. Le, R. L. McPherron, J. G. Luhmann, C. A. Cattell, and P. H. Reiff, Solar wind control and substorm effects on the high latitude, high altitude magnetosphere, presented at Fall AGU Meeting, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 77 (46), F617, 1996.
C. T. Russell, D. E. Huddleston, M. G. Kivelson, and K. K. Khurana, Considerations for the magnetic signature of the Galilean satellites, presented at Spring AGU Meeting, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 78 (17), S202, 1997.
C. T. Russell, G. Le, X-W. Zhou, P. H. Reiff, J. G. Luhmann, and F. Fenrich, On the presence of magnetosheath-like plasma at high altitudes over the Polar cap, presented at Spring AGU Meeting, (abstract) Eos Trans AGU, 78 (17), S291, 1997.
R. J. Strangeway, Solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars, 31st COSPAR Scientific Assembly, p140 (abstract), Birmingham, UK, 1996.
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